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CSSBB of ASQ(美国质量协会黑带认证考试大纲中英文版)

CSSBB Exam

Objective目的

To provide recognized Six Sigma fundamental training and to prepare persons interested in taking the CSSBB examination.
本书提供给认可的六西格玛的人的基础培训或有兴趣参加六西格玛黑带认证考试的人们.

Certification认证

Certification is the independently verified prescribed level of knowledge as defined through a combination of experience, projects and examination.
本认证是通过综合规定的经验、项目和考试的知识水平进行独立的考核。

The CSSBB

Is a professional who can carry out in responsible manner proven techniques which make up the body of knowledge recognized by those who are experts in Six Sigma.
被认证的六西格玛黑带能够以负责任的方式执行被六西格玛专家认可而组成的知识主体的技术。

Eligibility资格

CSSBB Participants must register with ASQ headquarters. Eligibility requires two completed projects with signed affidavits or one completed project with signed affidavit and three year work experience within the Six Sigma Body of Knowledge. No education waiver is given.
参加认证的六西格玛黑带必须经过ASQ总部的注册。所有参加认证的人员必须做过两个完整的项目并有相关的书面报告或者做过一个完整的项目并有相关的书面报告及三年六西格玛工作经验,没有相关知识的人视为主动放弃。

Cost费用

The national test fee is determined by ASQ and is detailed in the CSSBB brochure.
全国性的考试费用由ASQ决定并在CSSBB手册里有详细说明。

Location考场

Proctors are provided by ASQ sections in your area.
监考人员将由你所在区域的ASQ部门提供。

Duration考试时间

The test lasts 4 hours and begins at an advised time (typically 8 or 9 A.M.). The exam is open book and consists of multiple choice questions. Exams are given twice a year.
本考试持续四个小时,一般情况是从上午8点或9点开始。考试是开卷考试,由若干选择题组成。每年组织两次考试。

Other Details

Can be obtained by calling ASQ headquarters at 1-800-248-1946 or 1-800-952-
  1. Ask for the certification department. They will send a CSSBB brochure free of charge. The web address for ASQ is http://www.asq.org
欲想了解更多其他细节请拨打ASQ总部电话1-800-248-1946 或者 1-800-952-6587咨询相关负责认证的部门。他们会免费给你邮寄六西格玛黑带认证的手册。 或者你也可以登录ASQ网站http://www.asq.org

Bibliography Sources参考书目

The CSSBB student should obtain the bibliography furnished by ASQ. Currently, that list is massive. The sources recommended by the authors include:
ASQ可以为参加六西格玛黑带认证的学员提供一些参考书籍。目前,这样的书目很多,以下是作者建议给大家的一些资料:

Breyfogle, F. (1998). Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter Solutions Using Statistical Methods. John Wiley & Sons.

Pande, P.S., Newman, P.R., & Cavanaugh, R.R. (2000). The Six Sigma Way. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Harry, Mikel, &Schroeder, R. (2000). Six Sigma: The Breakthrough Management Strategy Revolutionizing the World’s Top Corporations. Doubleday.

Scholtes, P. R., Joiner, B. L., & Streibel, B. J. (1996) The Team Handbook, 2nd ed. Oriel Inc.

Brassard, M. (1989). Memory Jogger Plus+. Goal/QPC.

Naumann, E., & Hoisington, S. (2001). Customer Centered Six Sigma: Linking Customers, Process Improvement, and Financial Results. ASQ Quality Press.

Suh, Nam P. (1990) The Principles Of Design. Oxford Series on Advanced Manufacturing, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195043456.

Camp, R. (1989). Benchmarking: The Search for Industry Best Practices That Lead to Superior Performance. ASQ Quality Press.

Grief, M. (1991). The Visual Factory: Building Participation Through Shared Information. Productivity Press

Dettmer, H. W. (1996). Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints: A Systems Approach to Continuous Improvement. ASQ Quality Press.

Study学习

The author recommends that this Primer be taught by a qualified CSSBB using classroom lecture, study assignments and a review of test questions. Training may vary from 36 hours to 48 hours. Additionally, the student should spend about 60 hours of individual study on the Primer, test questions and other bibliography sources. If the student studies unaided, a minimum of 90 hours of preparation is suggested.
作者建议本书由有资格的培训机构授课并复习测试习题。培训时间大概在36到48小时内。另外学员还应该花费60个小时的独立学习本书,测试习题及其他一些参考书籍。如果学员要独立学习本书,建议最少花费90个小时的时间。

Exam Hints考试注意事项

The CSSBB applicant should take into the exam:

 Numerous #2 pencils
 A calculator (with basic scientific functions)
 The CSSBB Primer (without test questions)
 Other recommended quality references
 Scratch paper

通过六西格玛黑带认证考试申请的学员才可以参加本考试

 需要准备一支2B铅笔
 需要一个具有科学计算功能的计算器
 需要六西格玛黑带认证考试的书籍(必须是没有测试习题)
 其他质量参考书目
 草稿纸

Arrive early, get a good seat, organize your materials.
提前到达考场,选择一个好在座位,准备好你的考试用品。

Answer all multiple choice questions. There’s no penalty for wrong answers.
做完所有的选择题,答错的习题不会收到处罚。

Use good time management. If there are 150 questions on the exam and 4 hours is allotted for exam, you must average 1.6 minutes per question.
合理安排时间,如果4个小时内要考150道题,你应该平均1.6分钟完成一道试题。

Some tests begin with difficult questions, avoid panic. Save difficult questions until the end.
一些试题一开始会很难,不要恐慌。把它们保留到最后再做。

Be familiar with the functions of the calculator you bring.
熟悉你携带的计算器的功能的使用。

Keep test question numbers and the answer sheet numbers aligned.
确保试题的题号与答题卡上的题号一致.

Bring any exam errata to your proctor’s attention.
如果发现试题中出现任何错误可以提问监考人员。

Mentally note weakness categories in case you have to take the exam again. ASQ will report only flagrant areas.
如果你还想继续参加考试请多留意你比较生疏的知识部分。ASQ考题仅在有限的几个区域公布。


ASQ Certified Six Sigma Black Belt Body of Knowledge
美国质量协会黑带认证考试大纲

Ⅰ. Enterprise- Wide Deployment (9 Questions) 在全企业的展开(9道试题)

A. Enterprise view组织的价值观
1. Value of six sigma六西格玛价值观
Understand the organizational value of six sigma and its philosophy, goals, and definition. (Comprehension) 理解六西格玛的组织价值和它的理念、目标和定义(理解)
2. Business systems and processes业务系统和过程
Understand and distinguish interrelationships between business systems and processes. (Comprehension) 理解和区分业务系统和过程之间的相互关系 (理解)
3. Process inputs, outputs, and feedback 过程输入、输出和反馈
Describe how process inputs, outputs, and feedback of the system impact the enterprise system as a whole. (Comprehension)描述过程的输入、输出和反馈对整个组织系统的影响(理解)

B. Leadership领导能力
1. Enterprise leadership 组织领导能力
Understand leadership roles in the deployment of six sigma (e.g., resources, organizational structure). (Comprehension)理解在六西格玛推进过程中领导的角色 (例如资源、组织架构) (理解)
2. Six sigma roles and responsibilities六西格玛角色和责任
Understand the roles/responsibilities of black belt, master black belt, green belt, champion, executive, process owners. (Comprehension) 理解黑带、黑带大师、绿带、倡导者、执行领导者和过程所有者等角色 (理解)

C. Organizational goals and objectives组织的目标
Understanding key drivers for business; understand key metrics/scorecards 理解关键驱动因素;理解关键度量指标/平衡计分卡(理解)
1. Linking projects to organizations goal 把项目与组织目标相联系
Describe the project selection process including knowing when to use six sigma improvement methodology (DMAIC) as opposed to other problem solving tools, and confirm link back to organizational goals. (Comprehension)
描述项目选择过程,包括知道何时使用六西格玛改进方法(DMAIC),而不是使用其他的解决问题的工具,并且确保项目与组织目标相联系。(理解)
2. Risk analysis风险分析
Describe the purpose and benefit of strategic risk analysis (e.g., strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT), scenario planning), including the risk of optimizing elements in a projects or process resulting in sub optimizing the whole. (Comprehension)
描述战略风险分析的目的和益处,如SWOT、情景策划,包括在一个项目或过程中优化的要素可能导致对整个系统产生不利影响。(理解)
3. Closed-loop assessment/knowledge management闭环评价和知识管理
Document the objectives achieved and manage the lessons learned to identify additional opportunities. (Comprehension) 对达到目标的项目进行文件化,将获得的经验和教训进行管理,以便识别额外的机会(理解)

D. History of organizational improvement/foundations of six sigma六西格玛与质量管理发展史
Understand origin of continuous improvement tools used in six sigma (e.g., Deming, Juran, Shewhart, Ishikawa, Taguchi). (Comprehension)了解六西格玛中使用的持续改进工具的起源(如戴明、朱兰、休哈特、石川馨、田口等)

Ⅱ. Business Process Management (9 Questions)过程管理(9道试题)

A. Process vs. functional view过程与职能的视角
1. Process elements过程要素
Understand process components and boundaries. (Analysis)理解过程的组成部分和界限。(分析)
2. Owners and stakeholders所有者和相关方
Identify process owners, internal and external customers, and other stakeholders. (Analysis)识别过程所有者,内部和外部顾客及其他相关方。(分析)
3. Project management and benefits项目管理和益处
Understand the difference between managing projects and maximizing their benefits to the business. (Analysis)理解管理项目与使项目给经营带来最大利益之间的区别。(分析)
4. Project measures项目测量
Establish key performance metrics and appropriate project documentation. (Analysis)建立关键绩效度量指标和适宜的项目文档。(分析)

B. Voice of the customer顾客的声音
1. Identify customer 识别顾客
Segment customers as applicable to a particular project; list specific customers impacted by project within each segment; show how a project impacts internal and external customers; recognize the financial impact of customer loyalty. (Analysis)
细分顾客使之适合于每一个特定的项目;列出每一细分的顾客中受项目影响的顾客;展示一个项目如何影响内部和外部顾客;认识到顾客忠诚度对组织财务绩效的影响。(分析)
2. Collect customer data收集顾客数据
Use various methods to collect customer feedback (surveys, focus groups, interviews, observation, etc.) and understand the strengths and weaknesses of each approach; recognize the key elements that make surveys, interviews, and other feedback tools effective; review questions for integrity (bias, vagueness, etc.). (Application)运用多种方法收集顾客的反馈(调查、焦点小组、访问、观察等)并且理解每一种方法的优劣势;知晓使调查、访问和其他反馈工具有效的关键因素;审查问题清单以确保完整性(避免偏差、模糊不清等)。(应用)
3. Analyze customer data分析顾客数据
Use graphical, statistical, and qualitative tools to understand customer feedback. (Analysis)使用图表的、统计的和定性的工具来理解顾客反馈。(分析)
4. Determine critical customer requirements辨别关键顾客的需求
Translate customer feedback into strategic project focus areas using quality function deployment (QFD) or similar tools, and establish key project metrics that relate to the voice of the customer and yield process insights. (Analysis)
使用质量功能展开(QFD)或类似的工具把顾客反馈转变成战略项目关注领域,建立反映顾客声音的和可见的过程产出的关键项目度量指标。(分析)

C. Business results经营结果
1. Process performance metrics过程绩效度量指标
Calculate DPU, RTY, and DPMO sigma levels; understand how metrics propagate upward and allocate downward; compare and contrast capability , complexity, and control; manage the use of sigma performance measures (e.g., PPM, DPMO, DPU, RTY, COPQ) to drive enterprise decisions. (Analysis)计算DPU、RTY、DPMO西格玛水平;理解度量尺度是如何向上和向下传递的;比较和对比能力,复杂性和控制;管理驱动企业决策的西格玛绩效度量的使用。(如PPM、DPMO、DPU、RTY、 COPQ等)(分析)
2. Benchmarking水平对比
Understand the importance of benchmarking. (Knowledge)理解水平对比的重要性。(了解)
3. Financial benefits财务收益
Understand and present financial measures and other benefits (soft and hard) of a project; understand and use basic financial models (e.g., NPV, ROI); describe, apply, evaluate, and interpret cost of quality concepts, including quality cost categories, data collection, reporting, etc. (Application)理解并展示一个项目的财务度量和其他收益(软的和硬的);理解并使用基本财务模型(如NPV、ROI);描述、应用、评估和解释质量成本的概念,包括质量成本分类、数据采集和报告表等。(应用)

Ⅲ. Project Management (15 Questions) 项目管理(15道试题)

A. Project charter and plan 项目特许任务书和计划
1. Charter/plan elements特许任务书/计划要素
Compare, select, and explain elements of a project’s charter and plan. (Analysis)比较、选择和解释一个项目特许任务书和计划的要素。(分析)
2. Planning tools策划工具
Plan the project using tools such as Gantt chart, PERT chart, planning trees, etc. (Application)使用甘特图、PERT图、策划树等工具策划项目。(应用)
3. Project documentation项目文件化
Create data-driven and fact-driven project documentation using spreadsheets, storyboards, phased reviews, management reviews, presentations to executive team, etc. (Synthesis)使用电子表格、分层卡、阶段性审查、管理审查和给管理层做讲解等方法创建用数据和事实驱动的项目文档。(综合)
4. Charter negotiation特许任务书商议
Create and negotiate the charter, including objectives, scope, boundaries, resources, project transition, and project closure. (Analysis)创建和商议任务书内容,包括项目目标、范围、边界、资源、项目过渡和项目关闭。(分析)

B. Team leadership团队领导
1. Initiating teams创建团队
Know the elements of launching a team and why they are important: clear purpose, goals, commitment, ground rules, roles and responsibilities of team members, schedules, support from management, and team empowerment. (Application)知道创建团队的要素和为什么它们是重要的;清晰的目的、目标、承诺、基本原则、团队成员的角色和责任、时间表和来自管理层的支持和团队授权。(应用)
2. Selecting team members选择团队成员
Select team members who have appropriate skill sets (e.g., self-facilitation, technical/subject-matter expertise), and create teams with appropriate numbers of members and representation. (Application)选择具有合适技能的团队成员(如自主型的、技术/专家),创建拥有合适的成员数和代表性的团队。(应用)
3. Team stages团队发展阶段
Facilitate the stages of team evolution, including forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning, and recognition. (Application)为团队发展的不同阶段提供指导,包括组建期、激荡期、规范期、产出期、休会期以及认可期。(应用)

C. Team dynamics and performance团队动力和绩效
1. Team-building techniques建立团队的技巧
Recognize and apply the basic steps in team building: goals, roles and responsibilities, introductions, and both stated and hidden agendas. (Synthesis)理解和应用组建团队的基本步骤:目标、角色和责任,相互介绍及明示或隐含的议程。(综合)
2. Team facilitation techniques指导团队的技巧
Apply coaching mentoring, and facilitation techniques to guide a team and overcome problems such as overbearing, dominant, or reluctant participants, the unquestioned acceptance of opinions as facts, groupthink, feuding, floundering, the rush to accomplishment, attribution, discounts and plops, digressions and tangents, etc. (Application) 应用训练、咨询和指导技巧引领团队,并纠正问题,如压服、支配、勉强队员、将观点作为事实不假思索地接受、团体思想、内部不和、犹豫不决、急于求成、归属、折扣和突发事件、离题等。(应用)
3. Team performance evaluation 团队绩效评估
Measure team progress in relation to goals, objectives, and metrics that support team success. (Analysis) 根据团队目标和团队成功的测评指标度量团队的进展。(分析)
4. Team tools团队工具
Define, select, and apply team tools such as nominal group technique, force field analysis, multivoting, conversion/diversion. (Application) 定义、选择和应用团队工具,如名义小组技术、力场分析、复合投票以及变化与转变等。(应用)

D. Change agent 促进变革
1. Managing change管理变革
Understand and apply techniques for facilitating or managing organizational change through change agent methodologies. (Application) 理解和应用指导和管理组织变革的方法。(应用)
2. Organizational roadblocks组织的障碍
Understand the inherent structures of an organization (e.g., its cultures and constructs) that present basic barriers to improvement; select and apply techniques to overcome them. (Application) 理解组织中影响改进的基本障碍的固有的结构(如文化和组织);选择和应用技巧来克服它们。(应用)
3. Negotiation and conflict resolution techniques谈判和解决冲突的技巧
Define, select, and apply tools such as consensus techniques, brainstorming, effort/impact, multivoting, interest-based bargaining to help conflicting parties (e.g., departments, groups, leaders, staff) recognize common goals and how to work together to achieve them. (Application)定义、选择和应用工具,如一致决策技术、头脑风暴法、努力/影响、复合投票、以兴趣为基础的洽谈等来帮助冲突各方(如部门、小组、领导者、员工)认识到大家共同的目标和如何一同努力实现目标。(应用)
4. Motivation techniques激励技巧
Define, select, and apply techniques that support and sustain team member participation and commitment. (Application) 定义、选择和应用支持和保持团队成员积极参与和承诺工作的技巧。(应用)
5. Communication沟通
Use effective and appropriate communication techniques for different situations to overcome organizational barriers to success. (Application) 在不同情况下,使用有效的和适宜的沟通技巧以克服组织的障碍,达到成功。(应用)

E. Management and Planning Tools管理和策划工具
Define, select, and use 1) affinity diagrams, 2) interrelationship digraphs, 3) tree diagrams, 4) prioritization matrices, 5) matrix diagrams, 6) process decision program charts (PDPC), and 7) activity network diagrams. (Application)
定义、选择和使用1) 亲和图;2)关联图;3)树图;4)优先矩阵图; 5) 矩阵图; 6)过程决策程序图(PDPC); 7) 网络图。(应用)

Ⅳ. Six sigma Improvement Methodology and Tools – Define (9 Questions)六西格玛改进方法和工具――界定(9道试题)
A. Project scope 项目界定
Determine project definition/scope using Pareto charts, top-level process (macro) maps, etc. (Synthesis) 用排列图、概要流程图(宏观)等方法确定项目定义/范围。(综合)
B. Metrics 度量指标
Establish primary and consequential metrics (quality, cycle time, cost). (Analysis) 建立最初的和后续的度量指标(如质量、周期、成本)。(分析)
C. Problem statement问题陈述
Develop problem statement, including baseline and improvement goals. (Synthesis) 编写对问题的陈述,包括基线和改进目标。(综合)

Ⅴ. Six Sigma Improvement Methodology and Tools – Measure (30 Questions)
六西格玛改进方法和工具――测量(30道试题)

A. Process analysis and documentation过程分析和文档
1. Tools工具
Develop and review process maps, written procedures, work instructions, flowcharts, etc. (Analysis) 编制和审查流程图、书面程序、工作指南等。(分析)
2. Process inputs and outputs 过程输入和输出
Identify process input variables and process output variables, and document their relationships through cause and effect diagrams, relational matrices, etc. (Evaluation)识别过程输入变量和输出变量,通过因果图、关系矩阵记录它们之间的关系。(评估)
B. Probability and statistic 概率和统计学
1. Drawing valid statistical conclusions 归纳出有效的统计结论
Distinguish between enumerative (descriptive) and analytical (inferential) studies, and distinguish between a population parameter and a sample statistic. (Evaluation) 区分量化(描述性的)和分析(推断性的)研究的区别;区分总体参数和样本统计量的区别。(评估)
2. Central limit theorem and sampling distribution of the mean 中心极限定理及样本均值分布
Define the central limit theorem and understand its significance in the application of inferential statistics for confidence intervals, control charts, etc. (Application) 定义中心极限定理,并且理解其在置信区间、控制图等统计推断应用中的意义。(应用)
3. Basic probability concepts 基本概率概念
Describe and apply concepts such as independence, mutually exclusive, multiplication rules, complementary probability, joint occurrence of events, etc. (Application) 描述和应用一些基本概念,如独立性、不相容、乘法法则、条件概率、联合偶然事件等

C. Collecting and summarizing data收集和归纳数据
1. Types of data数据类型
Identify, define, classify, and compare continuous (variables) and discrete (attributes) data, and recognize opportunities to convert attributes data to variables measures. (Evaluation) 识别、定义、分类并比较连续的(计量数据)和离散的数据(计数数据),并且识别把计数数据转变为计量数据度量的机会。(评估)
2. Measurement scales 测量尺度
Define and apply nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio measurement scales. (Application) 定义和应用名义上的、顺序上的、间隔的和比率测量尺度。(应用)
3. Methods for collecting data 收集数据的方法
Define and apply methods for collecting data such as check sheets, coding data, automatic gaging, etc. (Evaluation)定义和应用收集数据的方法,如检查单、数据编码、自动判定等方法。(评估)
4. Techniques for assuring data accuracy and integrity 确保数据准确和完整的技巧
Define and apply techniques for assuring data accuracy and integrity such as random sampling, stratified sampling, sample homogeneity, etc. (Evaluation) 定义和应用确保数据准确和完整的技巧,如随机抽样法、分层抽样法、样本同质性等。(评估)
5. Descriptive statistics 描述性统计
Define, compute, and interpret measures of dispersion and central tendency, and construct and interpret frequency distributions and tendency, and construct and interpret frequency distributions and cumulative frequency distributions. (Evaluation) 定义、计算、解释离散和集中趋势的度量,构建并解释频率分布和累积频率分布。(评估)

6. Graphical methods 图表法
Depict relationships by constructing, applying, and interpreting diagrams and charts such as stem-and-leaf plots, box-and-whisker plots, run charts, scatter diagrams, etc., and depict distributions by constructing, applying and interpreting diagrams such as histograms, normal probability plots, Weibull plots, etc. (Evaluation) 通过构建、应用、解释图形和图表来诠释事物之间的关系,例如:茎叶图、箱线图、运行图、散点图等; 通过构建、应用、解释诸如直方图、正态概率点图、威布尔点图来解释分布状态。(评估)

D. Properties and applications of probability distributions掌握并应用概率分布
1. Distributions commonly used by black belts 黑带通常使用的分布
Describe and apply binomial, Poisson, normal, chi-square, Student’s t, and F distributions. (Evaluation) 描述并应用二项分布、泊松分布、正态分布、卡方分布、t分布、F分布。(评估)
2. Other distributions 其他分布
Recognize when to use hypergeometric, bivariate, exponential, lognormal, and Weibull distributions. (Application) 识别超几何分布,0-1分布、指数分布、对数正态分布及威布尔分布、(应用)

E. Measurement systems 测量系统
1. Measurement methods 测量方法
Describe and review measurement methods such as attribute screens, gauge blocks, calipers, micrometers, optical comparators, tensile strength, titration, etc. (Comprehension) 描述和评价测量方法,例如:属性筛选法、块规法、测径器、千分尺、光学比较仪、抗张强度、滴定等。
2. Measurement system analysis测量系统分析
Calculate, analyze, and interpret measurement system capability using repeatability and reproducibility, measurement correlation, bias, linearity, percent agreement, precision/tolerance (P/T), precision/total variation (P/TV), and use both ANOVA and control chart methods for nondestructive , destructive, and attribute systems. (Evaluation) 用重复性、再现性、测量的相关性、偏移、线性、百分比符合、精确度/容差(P/T )、精确度/过程波动(P/Tv )计算、分析和解释测量系统能力,并使用控制图和方差分析(ANOVA)两种方法对非破坏性检验以及破坏性和计数等测量系统进行分析。(评估)
3. Metrology 计量学
Understand traceability to calibration standards, measurement error, calibration systems, control and integrity of standards and measurement devices (Comprehension) 累积校准标准、测量误差、校准系统、标准的控制和完整性及测量仪器的可追溯性。(理解)

F. Analyzing process capability 分析流程能力
1. Designing and conducting process capability studies 描述并开展过程能力的研究
Identify, describe, and apply the elements of designing and conducting process capability studies, including identifying characteristics, identifying specifications/tolerances, developing sampling plans, and verifying stability and normality (Evaluation) 识别、描述、应用设计和开展过程能力研究的要素,包括识别特性、识别规范/容差、拟定抽样计划、验证稳定性和正态性。(评估)
2. Calculating process performance vs. specification 计算过程能力与规范
Distinguish between natural process limits and specification limits, and calculate process performance metrics such as percent defective (Evaluation) 区别自然过程界限和规范界限的区别,计算过程绩效度量指标,如缺陷率。(评估)
3. Process capability indices 过程能力指数
Define, select, and calculate Cp, Cpk, and assess process capability (Evaluation) 定义,选择、计算Cp、Cpk并评价过程能力。(评估)
4. Process performance indices 过程绩效指数
Define, select, and calculate Pp, Ppk, Cpm, and assess process performance (Evaluation 定义、选择和计算Pp、Ppk、Cpm并评价过程绩效(评估)
5. Short-term vs. long-term capability 短期与长期能力
Understand the assumptions and conventions appropriate when only short-term data collected and when only attributes data are available; understand the changes in relationships that occur when long-term data are used; interpret relationships between long-term and short-term capability as it relates to technology and/or control problems. (Evaluation) 理解当仅收集到短期的数据并仅有计数数据时,怎样做出假设和适宜的转换;理解当使用长期数据时其转换关系;对应于技术和/或控制问题,对长期和短期能力之间的关系做出解释。(评估)
6. Non-normal data transformations (process capability for non-normal data) 非正态数据的变换(非正态数据的过程能力)
Understand the cause of non-normal data and determine when it is appropriate to transform. (Application) 理解非正态分布数据产生的原因,确定什么时候可将它们转换。(应用)
7. Process capability for attributes data 计数数据的过程能力
Compute sigma level and understand its relationship to Ppk (Application) 计算西格玛水平并且理解它与Ppk的关系。(应用)

Ⅵ. Six Sigma Improvement Methodology and Tools – Analyze (23 Questions)
六西格玛改进方法和工具――分析(23道试题)

A. Exploratory data analysis 探测性数据分析
1. Multi-vari studies 多变量研究
Use multi-vari studies to interpret the difference between positional, cyclical, and temporal variation; design sampling plans to investigate the largest sources of variation; create and interpret multi-vari charts. (Application)使用多变量研究解释位置型、周期型和时序型变量;设计调查最大波动源的抽样计划;建立并解释多变量图。(应用)
2. Measuring and modeling relationships between variables 测量并建立变量间的关系模型
a. Simple and multiple least-squares linear regression一元和多元最小二乘线性回归
Calculate the regression equation; apply and interpret hypothesis tests for regression statistics; use the regression model for estimation and prediction, and analyze the uncertainty in the estimate. (Models that have non-linear parameters will not be tested.) (Evaluation) 计算回归方程、应用并解释回归统计量的假设检验;使用回归模型进行估计和预测;分析估计中的不确定性(带有非线性参数的模型不包括在考试范围内)。(评估)
b. Simple linear correlation 一元线性相关性
Calculate and interpret the correlation coefficient and its confidence interval; apply and interpret a hypothesis test for the correlation coefficient; understand the difference between correlation and causation. (Serial correlation will not be tested.) (Evaluation) 计算和解释相关系数和它的置信区间;应用并解释相关系数的假设检验;理解相关性和因果关系之间的区别(连环相关性不包括在考试范围内)。(评估)
c. Diagnostics 诊断
Analyze residuals of the model. (Analysis) 分析残差模型。(分析)

B. Hypothesis testing 假设检验
1. Fundamental concepts of hypothesis testing 假设检验的基本概念
a. Statistical vs. practical significance 统计的与实际的显著性
Define, compare and contrast statistical and practical significance. (Evaluation) 定义、比较并对比统计的 和实际的显著性。(评估)
b. Significance level, power, typeⅠand typeⅡ errors 显著性水平、检出力、第一错误与第二类错误
Apply and interpret the significance level, power, typeⅠand typeⅡ errors of statistical tests.(Evaluation) 应用和解释统计检验的显著性水平,检出力,第一类错误和第二类错误。(评估)
c. Sample Size 样本量
Understand how to calculate sample size for any given hypothesis test. (Application) 理解怎样计算一个给定的假设检验的样本量。(应用)
2. Point and interval estimation点估计和区间估计
Define and interpret the coefficient and bias of estimators; compute, interpret and draw conclusions from statistics such as standard error, tolerance intervals, and confidence intervals; understand the distinction between confidence intervals and prediction intervals. (Analysis) 定义和解释估计量的系数和偏移;从统计数据中计算、解释并得出结论,如标准差、容差区间、置信区间;理解置信区间和预测区间之间的区别。(分析)
3. Tests for means, variances, and proportions 均值、方差和比率检验
Apply hypothesis tests for means, variances, and proportions, and interpret the results. (Evaluation) 应用关于均值、方差和比率的假设检验,并解释得出的结果。(评估)
4. Paired-comparison tests 成对检验
Define, determine applicability, and apply paired-comparison parametric hypothesis tests, and interpret the results. (Evaluation) 定义、确定可应用类型,应用成对数据对参数进行假设检验并解释结果。(评估)
5. Goodness-of –fit tests拟合检验
Define, determine applicability, and apply chi-square tests and interpret the results. (Evaluation) 定义、确定可应用类型,应用卡方检验并解释结果。(评估)
6. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) 方差分析
Define, determine applicability, and apply ANOVAs and interpret the results. (Evaluation) 定义、确定可应用类型,应用方差分析解释得出的结果。(评估)
7. Contingency tables 列联表
Define, determine applicability, and construct a contingency table and use it to determine statistical significance. (Evaluation) 定义、确定可应用类型,并构建列联表,用它来确定统计显著性。(评估)
8. Non-parametric tests 非参数检验
Define, determine applicability, and construct various non-parametric tests including Mood’s Median, Levene’s test, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, etc. (Analysis) 定义、确定可应用类型,并构建各种非参数检验,包括Mood’s Median、Levene’s 检验、Kruskal-Wallis、Mann-Whitney等。(分析)

Ⅶ. Six Sigma Improvement Methodology and Tools – Improve (22 Questions)
六西格玛改进方法和工具――改进(22道试题)

A. Design of experiments (DOE) 试验设计(DOE)
1. Terminology 术语
Define independent and dependent variables, factors and levels, response, treatment, error, and replication (Comprehension) 定义独立和非独立变量、因素和水平、响应、处理、误差和重复。(理解)
2. Planning and organizing experiments 策划和安排试验
Describe and apply the basic elements of experiment planning and organizing, including determining the experiment objective, selecting factors, responses, and measurement methods, choosing the appropriate design, etc. (Evaluation) 描述和应用试验策划和组织的基本要素,包括确定试验目标,选择试验因素,响应和测量方法;选择合适的设计方案等。(评估)
3. Design principles 设计原理
Define and apply the principles of power and sample size, balance, replication, order, efficiency, randomization and blocking, interaction, and confounding. (Application) 定义和应用检出力和样本量,平衡、重复、顺序、有效性、随机化和区组、交互作用以及混杂等原理
4. Design and analysis of one-factor experiments 单因子试验的设计和分析
Construct these experiments such as completely randomized, randomized block and Latin square designs, and apply computational and graphical methods to analyze and evaluate the significance of results. (Evaluation) 构建诸如完全随机化、随机化区组、拉丁方试验设计、应用计算和图形方法分析和评估结果的显著性。(评估)。
5. Design and analysis of full-factorial experiments 全因子试验设计与分析
Construct experiments and apply computational and graphical methods to analyze and evaluate the significance of results. (Evaluation) 构建这些试验并应用计算和图形的方法分析和评估结果的显著性。(评估)
6. Design and analysis two-level fractional factorial experiments两水平部分因子试验设计与分析
Construct experiments (including Taguchi designs) and apply computational and graphical methods to analyze and evaluate the significance of results; understand limitations of fractional factorials due to confounding. (Evaluation) 构建试验(包括田口设计)并应用计算和图形方法分析和评估结果的显著性;理解由于混杂而导致部分因子试验的局限性。(评估)
7. Taguchi robustness concepts田口稳健性概念
Apply Taguchi robustness concepts and techniques such as signal-to-noise ratio, controllable and noise factors, and robustness to external sources of variability. (Analysis) 应用田口稳健性概念和技术,例如,信噪比、可控因素、噪声因素、对外部波动源的稳健性等。(分析)
8. Mixture experiments 混料试验
Construct these experiments and apply computational and graphical methods to analyze and evaluate the significance of results. (Analysis) 构建这些试验并且应用计算和图形方法分析和评估结果的显著性。(分析)

B. Response surface methodology 响应面法
1. Steepest ascent/descent experiments 最陡升/降试验
Construct these experiments and apply computational and graphical methods to analyze the significance of results. (Analysis) 构建这些试验并且应用计算和图形方法分析和评估结果的显著性。(分析)
2. Higher-order experiments 高阶试验
Construct experiments such as CCD, Box-Behnken, etc., and apply computational and graphical methods to analyze the significance of results. (Analysis) 构建诸如CCD, Box-Behnken等试验,应用计算和图形方法分析结果的显著性。(分析)

C. Evolutionary operations (EVOP) 调优运算
Understand the application and strategy of EVOP. (Comprehension) 理解调优运算的应用和战略。(理解)

Ⅷ. Six Sigma Improvement Methodology and Tools- Control (15 Questions)六西格玛改进方法和工具――控制(15道试题)

A. Statistical process control 统计过程控制
1. Objectives and benefits 目标和益处
Understand objectives and benefits of SPC (e.g., controlling process performance, distinguishing special from common causes). (Comprehension) 理解统计过程控制(SPC)的目标和益处(如控制过程表现、分辨普通原因和特殊原因)。(理解)
2. Selection of variable 变量选择
Select critical characteristics for monitoring by control chart. (Application) 选择用控制图监控的关键特性。(应用)
3. Rational sub grouping 合理分组
Define and apply the principle of rational sub grouping. (Application) 定义并应用合理分组的原则。(应用)
4. Selection and application of control charts 控制图的选择和应用
Identify, select, construct and apply the following types of control charts: x-bar and R, X-bar and s, individual and moving range (ImR/ XmR), median, p, np, c, and u. (Application) 识别、选择、构建并应用下列控制:均值-极差、均值-标准差、单值-移动极差、中位数-极差、p、pn、c、u图。(应用)
5. Analysis and control charts 控制图分析
Interpret control charts and distinguish between common and special causes using rules for determining statistical control. (Analysis) 解释控制图并应用控制图的判定准则来分辨普通的和特殊的影响因素。(分析)
6. PRE-control 预控制
Define and explain PRE-control and perform PRE-control calculations and analysis. (Analysis) 定义并解释预控制,完成预控制的计算和分析。(分析)

B. Advanced statistical process control 先进的统计过程控制
Understand appropriate uses of short-run SPC, EWMA, CuSum, and moving average (Comprehension) 理解小批量统计过程控制(SPC)、EWMA、累积和图和移动均值的适用方法。(理解)

C. Lean tools for control 用于控制的精益生产工具
Apply appropriate lean tools (e.g., 5S, visual factory, kaizen, kanban, poka yoke, total productive maintenance, standard work) as they relate to the control phase of DMAIC) (Application) 在DMAIC 控制阶段使用适宜的精益生产工具(如5S、目视管理、改善、看板、防错、TPM、标准作业法等)。

D. Measurement system re-analysis 测量系统再分析
Understand the need to improve measurement system capability as process capability improves; evaluate the use of control measurement systems (e.g., attributes, variables, destructive), and ensure that measurement capability is sufficient for its intended use. (Evaluation) 理解当过程能力提高时,需要改进测量系统能力;评估控制测量系统的使用(如计数数据、计量数据、破坏性检验等);确保测量能力对预期的用途是充分的。(评估)

Ⅸ. Lean Enterprise (9 Questions) 精益企业

A. Lean concepts 精益概念
1. Theory of constraints 限制理论
Describe the theory of constraints (Comprehension) 描述限制理论(理解)
2. Lean thinking 精益思维
Describe concepts such as value, value chain, flow, pull, perfection, etc. (Comprehension) 描述诸如价值、价值链、流动、拉动、完美等概念。(理解)
3. Continuous flow manufacturing (CFM) 连续流生产(CFM)
Describe the concept CFM. (Comprehension) 描述连续流生产的概念。(理解)
4. Non-value-added activities 非增值活动
Identify these activities in terms of inventory, space, test inspection, rework, transportation, storage, etc. (Application) 识别库存、空间、检验、返工、运输、贮存等非增值活动。(应用)
5. Cycle-time reduction缩短周期
Describe how cycle-time reduction can be used to identify defects and non-value-added activities using kaizen-type methods to reduce waste of space, inventory, labor, and distance. (Comprehension) 描述用改善方法减少空间、库存、劳动力和距离等非增值活动和缺陷,以缩短周期。(理解)

B. Lean tools 精益工具
Define, select, and apply tools such as visual factory, kanban, poka-yoke, standard work, SMED, etc., in areas outside of DMAIC-Control. (Application) 在DMAIC控制阶段外,定义、选择和应用精益工具,如目视管理、防错、标准作业法、SEMD等。(应用)

C. Total productive maintenance (TPM) 全面生产维护(TPM)
Understand the concept of TPM. (Comprehension) 理解全面生产维护(TPM)的概念。(理解)

Ⅹ. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) (9 Questions) 六西格玛设计(9道试题)

A. Quality function deployment (QFD) 质量功能展开
Analyze a completed QFD matrix. (Analysis)
分析一个完整的质量功能展开的矩阵。(分析)

B. Robust design and process 稳健设计与过程
1. Functional requirements 功能要求
Understand functional requirements of a design. (Comprehension) 理解设计的功能要求(理解)
2. Noise strategies 噪声策略
Develop a robust design using noise strategies. (Application) 应用噪声策略开发一个稳健的设计。(应用)
3. Tolerance design容差设计
Understand the concepts of tolerance design and statistical tolerancing. (Analysis) 理解容差设计及统计容差的概念。(分析)
4. Tolerance and process capability 容差和过程能力
Calculate tolerances using process capability data. (Analysis) 应用过程能力数据计数容差。(分析)

C. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) 失效模式和影响分析(FMEA)
Understand the terminology, purpose, and use of scale criteria (RPN) and be able to apply it to a process, product or service; understand the distinction between and interpret data associated with DFMEA and PFMEA (Analysis)理解相关术语、目标、标准尺度PRN(风险系数)的使用,理解在一个过程、产品、或服务中应用它;理解DFEMA、PFMEA之间的区别,并解释与它们相关的数据。(分析)

D. Design for X (DFX) 面向X的设计
Understand design constraints such as design for cost, design for manufacturability and producibility, design for test, design for maintainability, etc. (Comprehension)理解设计限制,如成本设计、制造能力和生产能力设计、检验设计、维护设计等。(理解)

E. Special design tools 特殊的设计工具
Understand the concept of special design tools such as the theory of inventive problem-solving (TRIZ), axiomatic design (conceptual structure robustness), etc. (Knowledge) 理解特殊的设计工具的概念,诸如解决创造性问题的理论(TRIZ),公理性设计(概念上构造一个稳健性设计)等。(了解)






Six Levels of Cognition Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956)
基于布卢姆(1956)分类方法的六大认知水平
In addition to content specifics, the subtext detail also indicates the intended complexity level of the test questions for that topic. These levels are based on “Levels of Cognition” (from Bloom’s Taxonomy, 1956) and are presented below in rank order, from least complex to most complex.
除了细节内容外,本书也详细说明为本主题设置的试题的不同复杂度水平。这些水平基于布卢姆(1956)的认知水平划分的,具体按照如下从易到难的顺序等级表述:

Knowledge Level 了解水平

(Also commonly referred to as recognition, recall, or role knowledge). Being able to remember or recognize terminology, definitions, facts, ideas, materials, patterns, sequences, methodologies, principles, etc.
(通常指对知识的认知、记忆,角色扮演)能够记忆或认知术语、定义、事实、概念、彩铃、模式、顺序、方法、原理等。

Comprehension level理解水平

Being able to read and understand descriptions, communications, reports, tables, diagrams, directions, regulations, etc.
能够阅读和理解所描述的内容、沟通内容、报告、表格、图表、方向、说明、规则等。

Application Level应用水平

Being able to apply ideas, procedures, methods, formulas, principles, theories, etc.
in job-related situations.
能够在实际工作环境中应用概念、程序、方法、公式、原理、理论等。

Analysis 分析水平

Being able to break down information into its constituent parts and recognize the part’ relationship to one another and how they are organized; identify sublevel factors or salient data from a complex scenario.
能够将信息分解成小的要素,并识别各要素间的相互关系以及它们的组织方式;从一个复杂的场景中识别出次级因素或显著的数据。

Synthesis综合水平

Being able to put parts or elements together in such a way as to show a pattern or structure not clearly there before; identify which data or information from a complex set in appropriate to examine further or from which supported conclusions can be drawn.
能够将要素或组成部分整合成一个整体,并显示出之前并不明显的模式或结构;从一个复杂的集合中识别出可以深入调查的数据或信息或得出支持性的结论。

Evaluation评估水平

Being able to make judgments regarding the value of proposed ideas, solutions,
methodologies, etc., by using appropriate criteria or standards to estimate accuracy, effectiveness, economic benefits, etc.
能够对建议的解决方案、概念、方法等的价值做出判断,并使用适当的规则或标准估计精确程度、有效性、经济利益等。
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