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zt 戴明语录(下)

障碍(Obstacles)
阻碍(员工) 以工艺为荣之实现,在美国,事实上可能就是降低成本与改进质量最重要障碍之一。
(Barriers against realization of pride of workmanship may in fact be one of the most Important obstacles to reduction of cost and improvement of quality in the United States.)
释义:员工无法自由发挥其潜能,抑制了创造力的发挥,无形中丧失了降低成本与改i质量的机会。


最佳化(optimization)(1)
劳工与管理阶层须把重点放在系统最佳化上,对于买方与卖方或供货商与经销商之间的任何讨论,其法则相同。如果在协商中你的首要目标是保护你自己,那么你已经输了---其它的人也要保护自己。当你与他人协力改进系统时,你收获最多。
(Labor and management should focus on optimizing the system. For any discussion between buyer and seller or suppliers and retailers, the rule is the same. If your principal goal in a negotiation is to protect yourself, you’ve already lost—and so has everyone else. You gain most when you work with others to improve the system.)
释义:要把买方、卖方、供货商、或经销商纳入管理系统之内,与他们建立供应链关系,共谋系统最佳化,使人人受益。


最佳化(optimization)(2)
任何团体都要时时将其所处的大系统的最佳化当作它的目标。任何未能使整个系统最佳化的事,终会导致系统中每一份子的损失。
Any group should have as its aim optimization over time of the larger system that the group operates in. Anything less than optimization of the whole system will bring eventual loss to every component in the system.
释义:系统内的每一份子,早己自然形成利益共同体,系统最佳时,就会产生利益最大的结果。


耐心(Patience)
没有耐心的人多么可悲啊!
—依阿高(坏蛋)对洛德利哥(傻瓜)之告诫,见莎士比亚的奥赛罗,Ⅱ,îîî。
( How poor are they that have not patience. ―lago to Roderigo, Shakespeare’s Othello, II, îîî。)
释义:成功需靠耐心。

恳请捐血(A Plea for Blood )
在血液银行里有两种血――好血和坏血。Dr. Burchell(我的医师),用了三份好血在我身上,他说,坏血是最后别无选择时才用。像是你、我的朋友这种人能够提供好血,这是单从血的来源来看。如果是来自经常捐血以换取酬劳的捐血者,则血液几乎是像捐血者本人一样地相当依靠接受清洗;如果我对Dr. Burchell了解无误。
换句话说,好血来自朋友和他们的朋友,用钱买不到――它是非卖品,此处我们或许曲解了一些医学用语,但Dr. Burchell的观点十分明确,他和其它外科医师都需要好血,任何血型都会拿来做替换。
简言之,我欠了三品脱的好血,报偿的方法只有一种,而金钱是办不到的。过去我并没有珍惜这些关键性的要求;或许这项恳求,能使我的朋友们去捐血。


  (There are two kinds of blood in the blood bank, good and bad. Dr. Burchell used three units of good blood on me. Bad blood, he said, is a last resort.
People like my friends and your friends can give good blood, and that is about the only source thereof. Blood from a regular donor that takes pay for it is almost dependably pretty well washed up. like the donor himself, if I understand Dr. Burchell correctly.
In other words, good blood comes from friends and from their friends. Money can not buy it: it is not for sale.
I may have garbled some of the medical language here, but Dr. Burchell’s point was very clear. He and other surgeons need good blood. Any type will do as replacement.
In short, I owe three pints of good blood, and there is only one way to repay them.
Money won’t do it. I had not appreciated these critical requirements. Maybe this plea will bring friends to offer blood.)


释义:好的来源,质量自然好。能用钱买到的未必是好货,出自真诚的奉献常有好品质。 好人要主动多做好事。

生产力(Productivity)
持续不断的改进生产与服务的系统以改进质量和生产力,如此可持续降低成本。
( Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to Improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs.)
释义:降低成本与提升生产力是相辅相成,可并行不悖。  


利润(Profits)(1)
不要依赖短期的利润来衡量系统是否健全,利润通常无法显示出管理之未来表现。藉少做研究与延缓维修,可轻易地显示出较高的利润,但受难的是系统。
(Don’t depend on short-term profits as a measure of a system’s health. They often don’t point to future performance of management. It’s easy to report a higher profit by reducing research and postponing maintenance. But the system suffers.)
释义:只注重短期好看的公司报表利润数字,常会以牺牲公司长远利益为代价。  


利润(Profits)(2)
账面利润不会使饼变大,他们给你一片比较大块的,你是多拿了别人的份,对社会并没有什么帮助。
(Paper profits do not make the pie bigger. They give you a bigger piece. You take it from somebody else. It doesn’t help the society.)
释义:近期的账面利润可能只是其它支付延迟的结果,故对社会无实质帮助。  

利润(Profits)(3)
红利和账面利润—通常是判断财务经理和公司首脑的准绳—并不会改进一公司或是美国工业的竞争地位。账面利润不足以谋生;质量与生产力之改进则可;他们的贡献,是可以改进世界各地人类的物质生活。
(Dividends and paper profits, the yardstick by which managers of money and heads of companies are judged, do not improve the competitive position of a company or of American Industry. Paper profits do not make bread: improvement of quality and productivity do. They make a contribution to better material living for all people. Here and everywhere.)
释义:较佳之物质生活水平,来自经营者不断提升其产品的质量与生产力,因深受顾客信赖而产生彼此双赢的局面。

保护主义(Protectionism)(1)
依赖关税和法律的保护,让人们〝买美国货〞只会鼓励无能。
(Dependence on protection by tariffs and laws to “buy American” only encourages incompetence.)
释义:在政府保护伞下生存的企业,必缺乏竞争力,犹如宠物无法自行谋生。  


保护主义(Protectionism)(2)
如果我国一些制造商能够凭着其努力与人竞争,少花点时间游说提高关税或降低贸易配额,他们或许可以较不必担心日本的竞争,而且可以带给我们其它人一些更好的质量及较低的价格。许多人说,他们相信企业自由竞争,但他们所指的通常是其它人的竞争,而不是与自己的竞争。
( If some manufacturers in my own country would meet competition with effort, and spend less time on lobbies to boost tariffs and to lower trade quotas. they might have less to worry about Japanese competition and could give some of the rest of us the benefit of better quality and lower prices. Many people say that they believe in free enterprise in competition, but what they often mean is competition for the other fellow, not for themselves.)
释义:不靠政府保护的公平竞争,能驱使企业加强经营能力从事与他人竞争,进而与自己竞争。  

保护主义(Protectionism)(3)
现在以我自己为例,我相信自由贸易,我不怕日本统计学家、英国统计学家、法国统计学家或任何其它统计学家,如果他们之中有谁做得较好,那我们该做的是到他那儿去,或把他带回我国,找出他是如何做的。我不知道有任何统计学家游说团,企图把外国统计学家排除在外,我们能将他们引进越多,我们会做得越好。
(Now in my own case, I believe in free enterprise, and I am not afraid of Japanese statisticians, English statisticians, French statisticians, or any others. If one of them is doing a better job, then the thing to do is to go over there, or bring him to my own country, and find out how he does it. I don’t know of any statistician’s lobby to try to keep out foreign statisticians. The more of them we import, the better off we are. )
释义:向竞争者学习或引进有能力的竞争者,与他们合作远比将他们排除在外来的好。
 
品质(Quality)(1)
为什么生产力会随着质量改进而提升?较少的重做,没有那么多浪费;对生产工人言,质量意指他的工作表现令自己满意,令他能以工艺为荣。
(Why is it that productivity increases as quality improves? Less rework. Not so much waste. Quality to the production worker means that his performance satisfies him, provides to him pride of workmanship.)
释义:要鼓励制造产品的工作人员建立为自己工艺为荣的观念,第一次就把工作做好,没有时间与工料的浪费,生产力自然提高。   


品质(Quality)(2)
质量由高阶管理者开始﹍。
产品与服务的质量不会高出高阶管理层的意图。一家公司能够成功的唯一途径,在于高阶管理层对采取措施所做的承诺。
(Quality begins at the top…. Quality of product and of service can be no better than the intent of top management. The only way a company can achieve success would be for the top management to be committed to the course of action.)
释义:高阶管理者是目标与策略的制订者,他对所采取措施承诺之轻重,决定了产品与服务质量的优劣。  
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品质(Quality)(3)
停止依赖检验来改进质量;一开始就把质量建置进产品里,就可无须依赖大量检验。
(Cease dependence on inspection to improve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place.)
释义:让设计者做出坚耐性设计,由生产者负责质量,慎选物料供货商,做好源流管理,就可无须依赖检验。  

品质(Quality)(4)
好质量不一定就该是高质量,好质量意指在适应市场低成本条件下,一致性与可恃性之可预测程度。
(Good quality does not necessarily mean high quality .It means a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost suited to the market)
释义:要以符合顾客需要,来定义质量。它的好与不好,是由市场的需要来判定。一般说来,顾客要的是均质可靠且可预测性高的产品。麦当劳的产品就具有此特色。
 
采购(procurement)(1)
停止依价格为基础的决标方式。代之以最低总成本。朝向任何一项产品,都向单一供货商采购,与他们建立长期的忠诚与信任关系。
(End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier of any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.)
释义:低价决标未必能得到最佳质量的产品,产品好坏除质量外,尚包括可靠度在内,故需以产品寿命周期的总成本来衡量。单一产品向单一供货商采购,是信赖其专业能力,与考虑降低采购成本所致。  


采购(procurement)(2)
1950年学来的日式管理—进料改进的最好方法是将每一供货商视为工作伙伴,秉持长期忠诚与信任的关系与他一起工作。
(Japanese management learned in 1950…that The best solution to improvement of incoming materials is to make a partner of every vendor, and to Work together with him on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.)
释义:要把供货商纳入生产体系,视他们为生产部门之一。  


采购(procurement)(3)
与你的供货商一起工作以改进其进料的质量,与他建立长期的关系,使他从事持续改进,使质量越来越好,成本越来越低,达到双赢的目的。
(Work with your vendor to improve his incoming quality. Establish a long-term relationship with him for continual improvement, ever better and better quality, with lower and lower costs. Both you and he will win.)
释义:要将供货商纳入为顾客提供良好产品的系统之内,视它们为第三生产部,通力合作以求双赢。


责任(Responsibility)(1)
解雇员工造成大量失业,不再为社会所接受;失去市场和导致失业并非宿命;它们不是不可避免的,它们是人为的。
(It is no longer socially acceptable to dump employees on to the heap of unemployment. Loss of market and resulting unemployment are not foreordained. They are no inevitable. They are man-made.)
释义:照顾员工使他们生活无虞,是经营者应尽的社会责任之一,故经营者须具备深厚的经营知识,以免犯错。  

责任(Responsibility)(2)
在美国最大的浪费就是未使人尽其才。一个人只要听听与生产工人开会的录音带,便可得知他们的挫折感以及有关他们急切要做的贡献。尽管我们学界的批判,任何只要看到大部分生产工人所具有的表达能力,都会留下深刻印象。
(The greatest waste in America is failure to use the abilities of people. One need only listen to a tape of a meeting with production workers to learn about their frustrations and about the contribution that they are eager to make. Anyone would be impressed to observe how articulate most production workers are, in spite of criticisms of our schools.)
释义:美国质量与生产力之低落,错不在生产工人,而在企业经营者未能倾听员工心声,与善尽用人之责。


统计(Statistics)(1)
这个国家几乎每天都有以生产力为主题的研讨会,大部分与生产力的小技巧及量测法有关,如Willuam E. Conway所说,生产力的量测就好比意外事件统计,告诉你有问题存在,但对意外事件却冷眼以对,不谋解决。「转危为安」一书即企图改进生产力,而不只是量测它
(There are conferences almost any day in this country on the subject of productivity, mostly concerned with gadgets and measures of productivity. As William E. Conway said, measurements of productivity are like accident statistics. They tell you that there is a problem, but they don’t do anything about accidents. This book is an attempt to improve productivity. Not just to measure it.)
释义:美国企业太过重视问题的技术面,而忽视管理面,须知不当的管理理念与作为,是造成问题的元凶,「转危为安」一书是为协助美国企业经营者观念转变而写的。  


统计(Statistics)(2)
把统计的原则与技术应用在生产的各个阶段,能直接以经济方式制造出有用且有市场的产品。
(The application of statistical principles and techniques in all stages of production directed toward the economic manufacture of a product that is useful and has a market.)
释义:生产各阶段包括进料、制造、检验、储存、包装、交运均可应用统计原则与技术以提升质量。   


统计(Statistics)(3)
当制程不再受特殊原因之干扰,便是在统计的管制之下,在统计管制下的制程表现是可预测的。
(A process is in statistical control when it is no longer afflicted with special causes. The performance of a process that is in statistical control is predictable. )
释义:在统计管制下的制程,变异呈随机状态,故可预测。  


统计(Statistics)(4)
一位专业的统计人员,不会遵从那些无法自圆其说的方法,来取悦某些人,也无法依此方法进行推论。他重视自己的名声与专业,更胜于轻易去同意某些不能由统计理论保证的说法……,如果他处理某件案子时有所偏颇不公,则他的专家事业将会破灭。「身为一个统计人员,我不能漫不经心。」这是面对法律案件或做任何其它报告时正确的态度。
(A professional statistician will not follow methods that are indefensible, merely to please someone, nor to support inferences based on such methods. He ranks his own name and profession as more important than convenient assent to interpretations not warranted by statistical theory…. His career as an expert witness will shatter in shipwreck if he indicates concern over which side of the case the results seem to favor. “As a statistician, I couldn’t care less,” is the right attitude in a legal case, or in any other report.)
释义:统计学家必须遵从统计理论与方法导出符合原则的结论,不可恣意玩弄数字以致被讥为最差的谎言,是识者所不取的。  

统计(Statistics)(5)
大多数统计人员会想起过去非正式的的建言受到暗地中伤的事例。在任何专业都有相同的情形。一个执业中且有客户的统计人员,想做好人却在不利的环境下提供建言,不论他是有意还是无意。他终会发现自己要对此建言负责。
(Most statisticians can recall instances in which informal advice backfired. It is the same in any professional line. A statistician that tries to be a good fellow and give advice under adverse circumstances is in practice and has a client, whether he intended it or not; And he will later on find himself accountable for the advice.)
释义:统计人员运用统计方法所得之信息向客户建言,需对其负责。

转变(Transformation)(1)
任何寻求转变的管理者必须长期致力于是吸收新知识和新理念。胆怯的、优柔的、以及期待速成的人,注定要失望。
(Long-tem commitment to new learning and new philosophy is required of any management that seeks transformation. The timid and the fainthearted, and people that expect quick results, are doomed to disappointment.)
释义:新理念与新知识,是应付新环境变迁所必备的,欲求革故鼎新,突破现状的管理者们,需时时注意吸取新知,并先从改变自己开始。不这么做,必定会失败。   
转变(Transformation)(2)
将公司里每一个人纳入完成转变的工作,转变是每个人的事。
(Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody’s job.)
释义:鼓励人人学习,用新理念、新方法、新技术/工具做事。   

变异(Variation)(1)
有些领导者忘记一项重要的数学定理,假若有二十人从事某项工作,无论如何,将会有两人落在百分之十以下;正如推翻重力律和自然律非常不易。重点不在下百分之十,而是谁在统计界线之外,谁需要帮助?
(Some leaders forget an important mathematical theorem that if 20 people are engaged on a job, 2 will fall in the bottom ten percent, no matter what. It is difficult to overthrow the law of gravitation and the laws of nature. The important problem is not the bottom 10 percent, but who is statistically out of line and in need of help.)
释义:管理者要把重点放在逸出管制界线的作业员之表现,它是出现问题之警讯,需要采取措施以消除其肇因。   

变异(Variation)(2)
有数以千计的人明白在管制界限内调查起伏状况会造成麻烦、增加变异、导致严重的损失。这群同样的人忘记了他们在工厂现场(当他们去那里时)所学到的基本科学原则,它同样可以运用在人的身上,人是任何公司中最重要的资产。
(Thousands of people understand that investigation of ups and downs within the control limits creates trouble, increases variation, causes severe loss. These same people forget the basic scientific principles that they have learned the factory floor; those same scientific principles apply to people. People are the most important asset of any company.)
释义:没有任何事由任何人来做会完全相同,只要它们没有超出许可范围内就不要斤斤计较有否变异。对人要予以尊重,因为他们是组织的最重要资产。  

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